Internet protocol (IP) establishes a collection of communication rules. The purpose is to control the form of all data sent within local networks and the Internet.
IP sets the most suitable arrangements for packets to transport the data till they are delivered, and it also includes many forms of addressing. Additionally, it routes datagrams over networks. Therefore, the transfer of data packets from an origin to their target point depends upon IP addresses.
IP addresses servers to identify different servers, routers, websites, computers, smartphones, Internet of Things (IoT) throughout the Internet. It makes communication between devices and exchanging data possible.
IPv4 address is the older but more commonly used Internet Protocol. It has been around since the beginning of the 80s. The 4th version of Internet Protocol was launched in 1981 and became in use in 1982. As we mentioned, like Internet Protocol (IP), its goal is to set all of the rules for communication. For example, from how the data packets have to be sent, to what occurs with them after, and should they be received, and so on.
IPv4 holds one fundamental feature. It is the chance to apply the best-effort delivery model. That means it is not necessary to establish a connection between the two points completely. However, it just has to try to send a message and actually don’t even have to wait to identify if it was successfully sent or not. For that reason, it is perfect for the Internet.
IPv4 addresses are quite short and easy to use. This is because they are 32-bit addresses performing the role of an ID card of every connected host.
They hold 4 groups of numbers that are with maximum 3 digits in each group.
Let’s see, for example, the IPv4 address of google.com: 18.104.22.168
Actually, Google holds many servers and has IPv6 addresses, so the example is just one of many IP addresses it holds.
Structure of IPv4 address
The IPv4 address’s structure is simple and basically looks like that: x.x.x.x. With the x is represented an octet with a number from 0 to 255. The numbers are separated with dots, so every IP version 4 address has four octets and three dots.
It is a 32-bit number, which uniquely recognizes a network interface on a machine. Every number stands for an 8-bit field and describes a byte of the IPv4 address. For that interpretation of the bytes in an IPv4 address, it is often presented as the dotted-decimal format.
Parts of the IPv4 address.
Additionally, the bytes could be divided into two parts – the network part and the host part.
Let’s use an example of IPv4 address: 22.214.171.124
The first two octets and the first two dots (126.96.36.199) represent the network part. With it is defined as the particular number that is assigned to an individual network. Moreover, it identifies the class selected for the network.
The third and fourth octets and the third period (188.8.131.52) represent the other component, which is the host part. It is usually selected for each host. Thanks to the host part, it is possible to recognize a certain individual device in one specific network.
Take note that for each host on your network, that network part of the IPv4 address is going to be the same. But, on the other hand, the host part is going to be different and unique.